Genetic Predictors of Weight Loss and Weight Regain After Intensive Lifestyle Modification, Metformin Treatment, or Standard Care in the Diabetes Prevention Program
Multiple obesity-predisposing gene variants are known (1,2), which may interact with lifestyle to modify obesity risk (3). It is unknown whether these variants influence weight regain (WR) after intentional weight loss (WL). We therefore tested associations of 16 obesity-predisposing variants with weight change in Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) participants.
Effect of Weight Loss on Free Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I in Obese Women With Hyposomatotropism
RASMUSSEN, MICHAEL H., ANDERS JUUL, AND JANNIK HILSTED. Effect of weight loss on free insulinlike growth factor-I in obese women with hyposomatotropism.
Massive Weight Loss Decreases Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Levels and Increases Free Cortisol in Healthy Obese Patients
Obesity, insulin resistance, and weight loss have been associated with changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. So far, no conclusive data relating to this association are available. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of massive weight loss on cortisol suppressibility, cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), and free cortisol index (FCI) in formerly obese women.
Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease
Although there are multiple long-term deleterious health effects of excess weight, obesity as defined by BMI 30 kg/m2 is associated with premature atherosclerosis, increased risk of myocardial infarction and heart failure, and decreased survival, largely because of cardiovascular deaths, particularly in extreme weight categories
Behavioral Therapy for Management of Obesity
Obesity is a major public health problem and is implicated in the rising prevalence of cardiac disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in India. Management of an obese patient includes therapeutic lifestyle changes of increasing physical activity and reducing calorie intake. This combination can result in about a 10% loss of initial body weight. To reinforce this intervention, behavioral therapy needs to be incorporated into the overall intervention under the belief that obesity is a result of maladaptive eating behaviors and exercise patterns. This review explains the principles of behavioral therapy, including the underlying assumptions and characteristics. The common components of behavioral therapy for obesity are explained. The different settings where behavioral therapy can be administered are mentioned. The review focuses on how behavioral therapy can be incorporated in the routine clinical management of obesity by primary and secondary care physicians who encounter obese patients.
Starches, sugars and obesity
The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.
Carbohydrate Intake & Obesity
Carbohydrates are among the macronutrients that provide energy and can thus contribute to excess energy intake and subsequent weight gain. There is no clear evidence that altering the proportion of total carbohydrate in the diet is an important determinant of energy intake. However, there is evidence that sugar-sweetened beverages do not induce satiety to the same extent as solid forms of carbohydrate, and that increases in sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption are associated with weight gain.